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GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$)

GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$)

GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$)

GDP growth rate (annual %, const. 2005 prices)

GDP growth rate (annual %, const. 2005 prices)

GDP growth rate (annual %, const. 2005 prices)

Economy: Services and other activity (% of GVA)

Economy: Services and other activity (% of GVA)

Economy: Services and other activity (% of GVA)

Labour force participation (female/male pop. %)

Labour force participation (female/male pop. %)

Labour force participation (female/male pop. %)

Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100)

Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100)

Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100)

Food production index (2004-2006=100)

Food production index (2004-2006=100)

Food production index (2004-2006=100)

Balance of payments, current account (million US$)

Balance of payments, current account (million US$)

Balance of payments, current account (million US$)

Major trading partners (% of exports)

Pakistan (33.0), India (28.0), Areas nes (27.3)

Major trading partners (% of imports)

Areas nes (44.3), Iran (19.5), Pakistan (17.3)

Population growth rate (average annual %)

Urban population growth rate (average annual %)

Fertility rate, total (live births per woman)

Life expectancy at birth (females/males, years)

Total dependency ratio (Pop. aged 0-14 & 65+ per 100 pop. 15-64)

International migrant stock (000/% of total pop.)

Refugees and others of concern to UNHCR

Infant mortality rate (per 1 000 live births)

Health: Total expenditure (% of GDP)

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Education: Government expenditure (% of GDP)

Education: Primary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100 pop.)

Education: Secondary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100 pop.)

Education: Tertiary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100 pop.)

Intentional homicide rate (per 100 000 pop.)

Seats held by women in national parliaments (%)

Mobile-cellular subscriptions (per 100 inhabitants)

CO2 emission estimates (000 tons/tons per capita)

Energy production, primary (Petajoules)

Energy supply per capita (Gigajoules)

Terrestrial and marine areas protected (% of total area)

Population using improved drinking water sources (urban/rural, %)

Population using improved sanitation facilities (urban/rural, %)

Net Official Development Assistance received (% of GNI)

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United Nations Statistics DivisionVersion v0.14.6 Beta

Hong Kong Population Projections 2012-2041 (with photovideo


The Hong Kong population is projected to reach 8.47 million in 30 years time according to an updated set of population projections released by the Census and Statistics Department (C&SD) today (July 31).Population projections provide a common basis for the Government in planning public services and facilities. They are regularly updated to take account of information on latest developments of the population, Deputy Commissioner for Census and Statistics, Mr Leslie Tang, said.In the updated set of projections, the Hong Kong Resident Population is projected to increase at an average annual rate of 0.6%, from 7.07 million in mid 2011 to 8.47 million in mid 2041. The average annual growth rate over the ten-year period from 2011-2021 is projected to be 0.8%. Yet with significant increase in number of deaths upon ageing of the population, the average annual growth rate over the last 10 years of the projection period is projected to slacken to 0.4%.Over the entire period from mid 2011 to mid 2041, the overall population is projected to increase by 1.40 million. There is a natural decrease (i.e. deaths less births) of 38 000 and a net movement (i.e. inflow less outflow) of 1.44 million.Within the Hong Kong Resident Population, the number of Usual Residents is projected to increase at an average annual rate of 0.6% from 6.86 million in mid 2011 to 8.22 million in mid 2041, and the number of Mobile Residents at a similar rate of 0.5% from 212 200 to 245 000.Broadly speaking, Hong Kongs fertility showed a declining trend over the past two decades. The total fertility rate of Hong Kong, which is the number of children born to 1 000 women during their life time, has been consistently below the replacement level of 2 100. It decreased from 1 281 live births per 1 000 women in 1991 to the historical low of 901 in 2003. It rebounded in recent years and reached 1 204 in 2011. In the fertility projections, reference is made to various factors, including the proportion of now married women, the marital fertility rates and births born in Hong Kong to Mainland women. The total fertility rate is projected to decrease gradually from 1 204 live births per 1 000 women in 2011 to 1 151 in 2041, said Mr Tang.Hong Kong has experienced a continuous decline in mortality during 1991V2011, leading to an increase in life expectancy. In 2011, the expectation of life at birth (provisional) was 80.5 years for males and 86.7 years for females. Compared with other economies, Hong Kong enjoys a very low mortality. The expectation of life at birth is projected to increase to 84.4 years for males and 90.8 years for females in 2041. The number of deaths is projected to increase from about 42 700 per year currently to about 82 400 at the end of the projection period. The increase in the number of deaths is mainly attributable to the growing proportion of older persons in the population despite a longer life expectancy.The population is expected to remain on an ageing trend. The proportion of the population aged 65 and over is projected to rise markedly, from 13% in 2011 to 30% in 2041. The pace of population ageing is projected to accelerate in the coming 20 years with the proportions reaching 19% in 2021 and then further to 26% in 2031. A slightly moderating trend of population ageing is projected in the last 10 years of the projection period. Meanwhile, the proportion of the population aged under 15 is projected to decrease gradually from 12% in 2011 to 9% in 2041, said Mr Tang.The phenomenon of ageing of the population can also be further analysed based on the dependency ratio. This is a demographic indicator reflecting the age composition of the population. It is defined as the number of persons aged under 15 and 65 and over per 1 000 persons aged 15-64. The ratio is projected to rise continuously from 333 in 2011 to 511 in 2026 and 645 in 2041, added Mr Tang.The ageing trend is also revealed by the increasing median age of the population which will rise from 41.7 in 2011 to 45.1 in 2021, and further to 47.7 in 2031 and 49.9 in 2041.The sex ratio (i.e. the number of males per 1 000 females) of the population is projected to fall noticeably, from 876 in 2011 to 788 in 2026 and 712 in 2041. Variations in the sex ratio by age group are expected. In particular, the sex ratio for the age group 25-44 is expected to be much affected by the presence of foreign domestic helpers comprising mostly younger females. Also relevant is the continued entry of One way Permit Holders (OWPH) in the coming years, many being Hong Kong mens wives living in the Mainland. Making reference to data which exclude foreign domestic helpers, the sex ratio of the population is projected to be higher, though it will still trend down from 948 in 2011 to 867 in 2026 and 786 in 2041.The characteristics of the population for selected years are presented in Table 1 while the components of population growth are analysed in Table 2.The component method, which is commonly used internationally, is adopted for compiling the population projections. Under this method, the population of a base year is brought forward by age and sex under separate projections of fertility, mortality and movement, year after year until the end of the projection period. As a policy assumption, it is projected that there will be 150 OWPH per day. The recent trends of the residency and mobility patterns of the Hong Kong population provide the basis for formulating the assumptions on other net movements.Similar to the last round, births born in Hong Kong to Mainland women and their intention of stay in Hong Kong have been taken into account in this updated set of population projections. It has been taken in this updated set of population projections that there are no Type II babies starting from 2013 because of a series of measures which has been /will be implemented, including (i) public hospitals would not accept bookings for delivery in 2013 from non-local pregnant women, (ii) the Department of Health would stop issuing the Confirmation Certificate on Delivery Booking to non-local Mainland women whose husbands are not Hong Kong residents for giving birth in Hong Kong in 2013 and (iii) the Hong Kong Private Hospitals Association also indicated that consensus was reached to stop accepting delivery bookings from non-local Mainland women whose husbands are not Hong Kong residents next year.A publication Hong Kong Population Projections 2012-2041 on the detailed projection results, along with the projection methodology and assumptions, is now available.Another publication Hong Kong Life Tables 2006-2041 describing the present and future mortality conditions of Hong Kong in the form of life tables is also available today. Apart from presenting the life tables, the publication also describes the method of constructing a life table.Users can download the above publications free of charge at the website of the C&SD (Enquiries on more detailed statistics can be directed to the Demographic Statistics Section, Census and Statistics Department (Tel: 2716 8044 or e-mail: ).

Ends/Tuesday, July 31, 2012Issued at HKT 15:03

Hong Kong profile – Timeline

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1842- China cedes Hong Kong island to Britain after the First Opium War. Over the decades, thousands of Chinese migrants fleeing domestic upheavals settle in the colony.

1898- China leases the New Territories together with 235 islands to Britain for 99 years from 1 July.

1937- With the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War, Hong Kong becomes a refuge for thousands of mainland Chinese fleeing before the advancing Japanese.

1941- Japan occupies Hong Kong. Food shortages impel many residents to flee to mainland China. The population drops from 1.6m in 1941 to 650,000 by the end of the Second World War.

1946- Britain re-establishes civil government. Hundreds of thousands of former residents return, to be joined over next few years by refugees fleeing the civil war between the Nationalists and the Communists in China.

1950s- Hong Kong enjoys economic revival based on light industries such as textiles.

1960s- Social discontent and labour disputes become rife among poorly-paid workforce.

1967- Severe riots break out, mainly instigated by followers of Chinas Cultural Revolution.

Late 1960s- Living conditions improve and social unrest subsides.

1970s- Hong Kong is established as an Asian Tiger – one of the regions economic powerhouses – with a thriving economy based on high-technology industries.

1982- Britain and China begin talks on the future of Hong Kong.

1984- Britain and China sign Joint Declaration on the conditions under which Hong Kong will revert to Chinese rule in 1997. Under the one country, two systems formula, Hong Kong will become part of one communist-led country but retain its capitalist economic system and partially democratic political system for 50 years after the handover.

1989- The massacre of pro-democracy demonstrators in Beijings Tiananmen Square leads to calls for the introduction of further democratic safeguards in Hong Kong.

1990- Beijing formally ratifies Hong Kongs post-handover mini-constitution or Basic Law.

1992April – Chris Patten becomes last British governor of Hong Kong, with a brief to oversee the colonys handover to China.

1992October – Chris Patten announces proposals for the democratic reform of Hong Kongs institutions aimed at broadening the voting base in elections. China is outraged that it has not been consulted and threatens to tear up business contracts and overturn the reforms after it has taken control.

1992December – Hong Kong stock market crashes.

1994June – After nearly two years of bitter wrangling, Hong Kongs legislature introduces a stripped-down version of Chris Pattens democratic reform package. The new legislation widens the franchise but falls far short of providing for universal suffrage.

1995- Elections held for new Legislative Council (LegCo).

1997July – Hong Kong is handed back to the Chinese authorities after more than 150 years of British control. Tung Chee-hwa, a Shanghai-born former shipping tycoon with no political experience, is hand-picked by Beijing to rule the territory following the takeover.

1998May – First post-handover elections held.

2001February – Deputy Chief Executive Anson Chan, a former deputy to Chris Patten and one of the main figures in the Hong Kong administration to oppose Chinese interference in the territorys affairs, resigns under pressure from Beijing and is replaced by Donald Tsang.

2002June – Trial of 16 members of the Falun Gong spiritual movement arrested during a protest outside Beijings liaison office in the territory. Falun Gong remains legal in Hong Kong, despite having been banned in mainland China in 1999, and the trial is seen as a test of the freedoms Beijing guaranteed to respect after the handover. The 16 are found guilty of causing a public obstruction.

2002September – Tung Chee-hwas administration releases proposals for controversial new anti-subversion law known as Article 23.

2003March-April – Both China and Hong Kong are hit by the pneumonia-like Sars virus. Strict quarantine measures are enforced to stop the disease spreading. Hong Kong is declared free of Sars in June.

2003July – A day after a visit to the territory by Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao, 500,000 people march against Article 23. Two Hong Kong government members resign. The bill is shelved indefinitely.

2004April – China rules that its approval must be sought for any changes to Hong Kongs election laws, giving Beijing the right to veto any moves towards more democracy, such as direct elections for the territorys chief executive.

2004July – Some 200,000 people mark the seventh anniversary of Hong Kongs handover to Chinese rule by taking part in a demonstration protesting Beijings ruling against electing the next chief executive by universal suffrage.

Britain accuses China of interfering in Hong Kongs constitutional reform process in a manner inconsistent with self-governance guarantees agreed before the handover.

2004September – Pro-Beijing parties retain their majority in LegCo elections widely seen as a referendum on Hong Kongs aspirations for greater democracy. In the run-up to the poll, human rights groups accuse Beijing of creating a climate of fear aimed at skewing the result.

2004December – Chinese President Hu Jintao delivers public rebuke to Tung Chee-hwa, telling him to improve his administrations performance.

2005March – Amid mounting criticism of his rule, Tung Chee-hwa resigns, citing failing health. He is succeeded in June by Donald Tsang.

2005May – Hong Kongs highest court overturns the convictions of eight of the Falun Gong members who were found guilty of causing an obstruction in the territory in 2002.

2005June – Tens of thousands of people commemorate sixteenth anniversary of crackdown on pro-democracy demonstrations in Tiananmen Square. Hong Kong is the only part of China where the 1989 events are marked.

2005September – Pro-democracy members of LegCo make unprecented visit to Chinese mainland. Eleven members of the 25-strong pro-democracy group had been banned from the mainland for 16 years.

2005December – Pro-democracy legislators block Mr Tsangs plans for limited constitutional reforms, saying they do not go far enough. Mr Tsang said his plans – which would have changed electoral processes without introducing universal suffrage – went as far as Beijing would allow.

2006March – Pope Benedict XVI elevates Bishop Joseph Zen, the leader of Hong Kongs 300,000 Catholics and an outspoken advocate of democracy, to the post of cardinal. China warns Cardinal Zen to stay out of politics.

2006July – Tens of thousands of people rally in support of full democracy.

2007January – New rules aim to restrict the number of pregnant women from mainland China who come to Hong Kong to give birth. Many had been drawn by the prospect of gaining Hong Kong residency rights for their children and evading Chinas one-child policy.

2007April – Chief Executive Donald Tsang is appointed to a new five-year term after winning elections in March.

2007July – Hong Kong marks 10th anniversary of handover to China. New government under Chief Executive Donald Tsang is sworn in. Plans for full democracy unveiled.

2007December – Beijing says it will allow the people of Hong Kong to directly elect their own leader in 2017 and their legislators by 2020. Mr Tsang hails this as a timetable for obtaining universal suffrage, but pro-democracy campaigners express disappointment at the protracted timescale.

2008September – Hong Kongs pro-democracy camp wins more than a third of seats in legislative elections, retaining a key veto over future bills.

2009June – Tens of thousands of people attend a vigil in Hong Kong on the 20th anniversary of the Tiananmen Square massacre. The territory is the only part of China to mark the anniversary.

2009December – Hong Kong authorities unveil proposals for political reform in response to pressure for greater democracy, including an enlarged Legislative Council; critics say the moves do not go far enough.

2010May – Five opposition MPs are returned to their seats, in by-elections they triggered by quitting – a move intended to pressure China to grant the territory full democracy.

Opposition Democratic Party, traditionally hostile to Beijing, holds its first talks with a Chinese official since the 1997 handover.

2012July – Leung Chun-ying takes office as chief executive, succeeding Donald Tsang whose last months in office were dogged by controversy over his links with wealthy businessmen.

2012September – Pro-democracy parties retain their power of veto over new laws in Legislative Council elections, but perform less well than expected. Turnout, at over 50%, was higher than in 2008.

2013June – Hundreds march in support of whistleblower Edward Snowden, who fled to Hong Kong after exposing secret US surveillance programmes.

2014June – More than 90% of the nearly 800,000 people taking part in an unofficial referendum vote in favour of giving the public a say in short-listing candidates for future elections of the territorys chief executive. Beijing condemns the vote as illegal.

2014July – Tens of thousands of protesters take part in what organisers say could be Hong Kongs largest pro-democracy rally in a decade.

2014August – Chinese government rules out a fully democratic election for Hong Kong leader in 2017, saying that only candidates approved by Beijing will be allowed to run.

2014September-November – Pro-democracy demonstrators occupy the city centre for weeks in protest at the Chinese governments decision to limit voters choices in the 2017 Hong Kong leadership election. More than 100,000 people took to the streets at the height of the Occupy Central protests.

2014December – Authorities take down Mong Kok protest camp, leaving a few hundred protesters at two camps at Admiralty and Causeway Bay.

2014December – Hong Kong tycoon and former government official Thomas Kwok is sentenced to five years in jail in the citys biggest-ever corruption case.

2015June – Legislative Council rejects proposals for electing the territorys next leader in 2017. Despite pro-democracy protests and a lengthy consultation process, the plans remained the same as those outlined by China in 2014.

2016August – Hundreds of protesters rally against the disqualification of six pro-independence candidates from Legislative Council elections on 4 September.

2016September – A new generation of pro-independence activists win seats in Legislative Council elections in the highest turnout since the 1997 handover from Britain to China.

2016November – Thousands of people gather in central Hong Kong to show their support for Chinas intervention in the territorys political affairs after Beijing moves to have two pro-independence legislators removed from office.

2016November -The high court disqualifies pro-independence legislators Sixtus Leung and Yau Wai-Ching from taking their seats in the Legislative Council after they refused to pledge allegiance to China during a swearing in ceremony.

2016December – Chief Executive CY Leung announces he will not see re-election when his current term ends in July 2017, citing family reasons.

2017February – Former chief executive Donald Tsang is sentenced to 20 months in prison for misconduct in public office after he was accused of concealing private rental negotiations with a property tycoon for a luxury apartment in China, in return for awarding its owner a broadcasting licence.

2017March – CY Leungs deputy Carrie Lam wins the Electoral College to become the next chief executive.

2017June – Chinese President Xi Jinping visits Hong Kong to swear in Chief Executive Carrie Lam, and uses his visit to warn against any attempt to undermine Chinas influence over the special administrative region.